Friday
Feb192016

Seminar talk by Dr. Arthur Chan

An upcoming seminar talk:

Airway Hypersensitivity Induced by Exposure to Organic Aerosol

by Dr. Arthur Chan

Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto

Host: Dr. Allan Bertram, Chemistry & Dr. Chris Carlsten, SPPH

Date: Tuesday, March 8th, 3:30-4:30pm

Location: Room D215, Chemistry Building, 2036 Main Mall

Abstract:

Epidemiologic studies have shown that particulate matter (PM) is associated with the incidence, morbidity and mortality of cardiopulmonary diseases. PM is mostly comprised of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA), formed through secondary reactions in the atmosphere. Here we study the in vivo pulmonary effects on mice exposed to lab-generated SOA. Healthy 8-10 weeks old female mice were exposed for 1 hr/day for 3 consecutive days to SOA from naphthalene oxidation (N-SOA), maintained at levels to simulate street-level concentrations during exposures. Pulmonary function and methacholine (MCh)- responsiveness were assessed 24 hours after the final exposure. After exposure to N-SOA, significant increases in total respiratory resistance were observed when compared to control filtered-air mice, and in a dose-dependent manner. However, the total and differential leukocyte counts in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were similar in all experimental groups, suggesting that increase in airway responsiveness was not associated with airway inflammation and may be triggered by non-inflammatory pathways.

Biography:

Dr. Arthur Chan has been an Assistant Professor in Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry at University of Toronto since 2013. His research focuses on the sources, transformations and impacts of organic aerosol in the atmosphere. Arthur Chan received his Ph.D. in 2010 from Caltech studying the oxidation chemistry of organic compounds leading to SOA formation, and completed his postdoctoral work developing analytical techniques for atmospheric organic mixtures. 

 

(Last updated: March 2nd, 2016)

 

Friday
Feb192016

Seminar talk by Dr. Andrew Grieshop

From the kitchen to the clouds: towards an improved understanding of biomass cookstove emissions and their atmospheric aging

by Dr. Andrew Grieshop

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University

Host: Dr. Milind Kandlikar, IRES

Date: Thursday, March 24th – 3-4 pm

Location: Case room, Liu Institute for Global Issues, 6476 NW Marine Drive

Abstract:

Roughly 40% of the world’s population cooks over rudimentary biomass fires that emit gaseous and particulate species with enormous public health and climate impacts. The potential to mitigate these impacts has spurred numerous large- and small-scale efforts to introduce alternative technologies, ostensibly with reduced emissions and impacts. This talk will provide an overview of research activities in my group to improve the understanding of the ‘lifecycle’ of aerosol emissions from cookstoves. Our experimental work examines the performance of both baseline and alternative technologies and helps build a better understanding of how emissions photochemically ‘age’ in the atmosphere. In-home emission tests completed in India and Malawi reveal that alternative stove designs neither deliver the emission reductions desired nor those observed during laboratory tests. The activity levels and aerosol emission rates, characteristics, and optical properties associated with in-field stove use are distinct from those from standard laboratory Water Boiling Tests (WBTs). We are leveraging the large field emission dataset to develop a lab testing protocol that better represents real-world cooking activity and emissions. However, factors beyond activity alone (e.g. fuel characteristics) have important influence on emissions, highlighting the continued need for field testing. Another thread of research indicates that atmospheric aging can dramatically change the mass and chemical composition of organic aerosols from biomass combustion emissions. Ongoing laboratory experiments with a ‘smog chamber’ and a newly developed, field-portable oxidation flow reactor allow us to simulate the aging of emissions over days to weeks under various oxidant conditions. Preliminary data show that aging can enhance organic aerosol concentrations by several-fold, with important implications for the regional air quality and climate impacts of current and proposed future combustion systems. Future work will combine these efforts to accurately represent emissions and aging conditions in both laboratory and field settings.

Biography:
Dr. Andy Grieshop has been an Assistant Professor in the Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University (NCSU) since January, 2012. Dr. Grieshop’s research focuses on interactions between energy use and the environment, and more specifically on improving our technical understanding of the emission and atmospheric transformations of air pollutants. This work aims to inform effective policies to improve air quality and mitigate climate impacts in both developed and developing countries. Ongoing research includes a collaborative project to quantify the emission, indoor concentration, and health and climate impacts of two cookstove replacement programs in rural India, field measurements to characterize evolution of vehicle emissions in a near-road environment and lab and field measurements of the volatility of organic aerosols. His work integrates laboratory and field based experimentation with modeling and policy analysis efforts to address environmental problems. He teaches Environmental Engineering courses at the graduate and undergraduate levels and is the Faculty Advisor for the NCSU Chapter of Engineers Without Borders. Dr. Grieshop received his BS in Mechanical Engineering from UC Berkeley and his MS in Mechanical Engineering and PhD in Mechanical Engineering and Engineering and Public Policy from Carnegie Mellon University. Before joining NC State he was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of British Columbia.

BiographyDr. Andy Grieshop has been an Assistant Professor in the Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University (NCSU) since January, 2012. Dr. Grieshop’s research focuses on interactions between energy use and the environment, and more specifically on improving our technical understanding of the emission and atmospheric transformations of air pollutants. This work aims to inform effective policies to improve air quality and mitigate climate impacts in both developed and developing countries. Ongoing research includes a collaborative project to quantify the emission, indoor concentration, and health and climate impacts of two cookstove replacement programs in rural India, field measurements to characterize evolution of vehicle emissions in a near-road environment and lab and field measurements of the volatility of organic aerosols. His work integrates laboratory and field based experimentation with modeling and policy analysis efforts to address environmental problems. He teaches Environmental Engineering courses at the graduate and undergraduate levels and is the Faculty Advisor for the NCSU Chapter of Engineers Without Borders. Dr. Grieshop received his BS in Mechanical Engineering from UC Berkeley and his MS in Mechanical Engineering and PhD in Mechanical Engineering and Engineering and Public Policy from Carnegie Mellon University. Before joining NC State he was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of British Columbia.

 

 

Friday
May082015

Annual Student Seminars 2014-15

CREATE-AAP group: please join us at the Annual Student Seminars to see CREATE-AAP students present on their research or internship experiences.

When: May 20, 2015, 12:30-5pm

Where: Chemistry D213

Presenters: Annie Wang, Ben Weinstein, Vickie Irish, Martha Lee, Dagny Ullmann, Yimei Li, Marabeth Kramer, Loren Oh, Abhishek Kar, Aaron Birch.

Thursday
Mar192015

Seminar talk by Dr. Kelly BéruBé

Title: Breathing new life into air pollution research: recycling medical waste tissues for inhalation toxicology

Speaker: Dr. Kelly BéruBé, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Wales, UK

Date: Friday March 20th, 2015

Time: 10:30-11:30am

Where: Access webinar via https://bluejeans.com/243730215

(Follow the prompts to enter your name and email and download a plugin on your computer browser. You will be able to receive the speaker's video/audio feed and ask questions using the chat functions.)

 

Abstract:

With the advent of bio-banks to store human lung cells from human patient donations and from the procurement of medical waste tissues post-surgery, it is now possible to integrate (both spatially and temporally) cells into anatomically-correct and physiologically-functional tissues. Modern inhalation toxicology relies on human data on exposure and adverse effects, to determine the most appropriate risk assessments and mitigations for beneficial respiratory health. A point in case is the recapitulation of airway tissue, such as the bronchial epithelium, to investigate the impact of air pollution (i.e. particles and gases) on human respiratory health. The bronchi are the first point of contact for inhaled substances that by-pass defences in the upper respiratory tract. Animal models have been used to resolve such inhalation toxicology hazards. However, the access to medical waste tissues has enabled the Lung & Particle Research Group at Cardiff University to tissue-engineer the Micro-Lung™ and Metabo-Lung™ cell culture models, as alternatives to using animals for inhalation experiments. The former model favours investigations focused on lung injury and repair mechanisms, and the latter model provides the element of metabolism, through the co-culturing of lung (bronchial) and liver (hepatocyte) cells. These innovations represent examples of the animal-free alternatives advocated by the 21st Century toxicology paradigm (i.e. NRC, USA) whereby human-derived cell/tissue data will lead to more-accurate and more-reliable public health risk assessments and therapeutic mitigations (e.g. exposure to ambient air pollutants) for lung disease.

(Read more about Dr Kelly BéruBé: http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/biosi/contactsandpeople/stafflist/a-d/berube-kelly-dr-biography_new.html)

Friday
Oct242014

Invitation to 2014 CREATE-AAP Symposium

 

Wednesday
Aug272014

Seminar talk by Dr. Yaacov Mamane

Date: Friday, Aug 29th, 2014 

Time: 2:00-3:00pm

Location: UBC Chemistry D215

Speaker: Dr. Yaacov Mamane, Technion, Israel (Environmental Engineering)

Title: Transport of Anthropogenic Elements on Saharan Dust Along the East Mediterranean

Abstract: 

This study focuses on the possibility that dust storms minerals are "collecting" anthropogenic particles along their transport pathway to the East Mediterranean. The study involves:

(1)  Intensive sampling campaigns to characterize PM10 particles during seasons with high occurrence of dust storms. 24 hr samples of fine and coarse particles were collected up to four weeks with dichotomous samplers in various sites along the coast. Teflon filters were analyzed for gravimetric and elemental analysis (using XRF). Quartz, and Nuclepore filters were also used.

(2)  Study of individual particles using scanning electron microscopy.

Analyses of samples collected during dust storm showed high concentrations the presence of alumino-silicate elements in during the dust storm events. Ca concentrations (as calcite and dolomite) were often higher than Si. Those findings were true for both the coarse and fine particle fractions. Sea salt elements were associated with dust storms events, not necessarily on the same day, but a day later,  the result of stormy meteorological conditions associated with Saharan dust transported to the East Mediterranean.

Heavy metals of anthropogenic origin were associated with the minerals. These include V and Ni, particles emitted from combustion of crude oil in Europe and in East Mediterranean, Pb, Zn, Se and As, oil from coal combustion sources. Coarse particle fractions could be explained by two factors (using principal component analysis): mineral elements associated with anthropogenic heavy metals, and sea salt. In the fine particle fraction this association has not been observed. Dust storms may be efficient in transporting anthropogenic constituents with them.  The "coating" of minerals with heavy metal particles may have a significant impact on the radiative properties of minerals, and health effect. 

Monday
May262014

Annual Student Seminars 2013-14

This year, the annual student seminars were held on Friday, May 23rd, 2014. Thank you to all the presenters as well as mentors and collaborators who came to support them and enhanced discussion. 

The presenters this year were:

Annie Seagram, Rachel Cliff, Meng Si, Vickie Irish, Vlad Popa, Martha Lee, Ramin Dastanpour, Yuri Chenyakin, Kevin Akaoka, and Ryan Mason.

A range of topics covered a variety of atmospheric aerosols and their properties (e.g. PM2.5, bacteria, soot, fungi, ice nucleation properties), instrumentation (e.g. APS, MOUDI-DFT), atmospheric models and analyses (e.g. cloud resolving model, land use regression model, long-range transport trajectories), impact of pollution (e.g. on cognition), and new developing thesis studies on atmospheric aerosols in the Lower Mainland and Hong Kong. 

Monday
Apr282014

Seminar talk by Dr. Thomas Koop

Date: Friday, May 9th, 2014 

Time: 11:30am-12:30pm

Location: UBC Chemistry D317

Speaker: Dr. Thomas Koop, Bielefeld University, Germany (Atmospheric and Physical Chemistry)

Title: Competition between water uptake and ice nucleation in glassy aerosol particles

Abstract: The phase state of condensed matter is of fundamental importance in various environmental systems, for example for heterogeneous chemical reactions and cloud formation processes in atmospheric aerosols. In this presentation both thermodynamic as well as kinetic aspects of different types of liquid-to-solid phase transitions will be reviewed, including ice crystal formation via homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation processes. Moreover, the formation and properties of amorphous semi-solid and glassy states in organic aerosol particles and their dependence upon water content will be discussed. Such glass formation may delay or inhibit homogeneous ice nucleation owing to reduced diffusivities within the glassy state, but may also trigger heterogeneous ice nucleation at the surface of glassy particles, revealing a Janus-like behavior of glass-forming aerosol particles.

Wednesday
Apr162014

Seminar talk by Dr. Thomas Koop

CREATE-AAP will host a seminar talk by atmospheric chemist Dr. Thomas Koop from Bielefeld University, Germany on May 9th (Friday), 11:30am-12:30pm

Further details TBA.

Tuesday
Mar262013

Seminar talk by Dr. Xiaohong Liu, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Title: "Past and Future Climate Change, and the Role of Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions"

Date: April 3, 2013

Time: 10:00 AM

Location: Chemistry, D317, UBC Campus, Vancouver, BC